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VOCABULARY

Created – основанный

Fortified – укрепленный

Monk – монах

Scholarly – ученый

Debate – дебаты

Danes – датчане

Conquest – завоеватель

the throne – королевская, царская власть

brewer – пивовар

butcher – мясник

baker – булочник

tailors – портной

cooper – бондарь

prosperous – процветающий

Furthermore – к тому же

The firm Kevin Roche (1922-), John Dinkeloo (1918-1981) and Associates has produced some of contemporary America's most significant and influential civic architecture. Recognizing new social conditions within postindustrial society, the firm has designed buildings that focus on the changing role of public space and its relationship to the individual. Working primarily in the established centers of older American cities and their vast emerging regional fringes, the firm has contributed to the transformation and maturity of such basic twentieth-century building types as the corporate headquarters and the skyscraper. Informing this typological research is a continuing free manipulation of the legacy of modern archiecture. Consistently choosing an outlook both pragmatic and visionary, the firm has shunnedconventional solutions, pursuing instead technological and social innovation patiently within the context of present cultural conditions.

 

The British architect, James Stirling, was born in Glasgow, Scotland in 1926. He received his architectural degree from the University of Liverpool School of Architecture in 1950. James Stirling undertook postgraduatestudy at the School of Town Planning and Regional Research, London, 1950-1952. Early experience was obtained in the firm of Lyons, Israel and Ellis, where James Stirling was Senior Assistant (1950-1956). In 1956, James Stirling entered into a partnership with James Gowan based on a commissionfor development of private flats at Ham Common, on the outskirts of London. The design of this project was based on James Stirling's close study of Le Corbusier's Jaoul houses in Paris (1954-1956). The firm of James Stirling and James Gowan lasted until 1963. after which James Stirling practiced alone (1964-1970). In 1971, James Stirling formed a partnership with Michael Wilford. The firm is currently James Stirling, Michael Wilford and Associates.

 

The 50-year career of Eliel Saarinen (1873-1950) can be divided into two parts. Practicing in Finland for 25 years, he first established an international reputation based on his "National Romantic" and Jugendstill-inspired architecture. The second phase of Eliel Saarinen's career began when he emigrated to the United States in 1923, after placing second the 1922 Chicago Tribune Tower competition. While practicing in the United States, Eliel Saarinen also assumed the role of educator, first at the University of Michigan and then at the Cranbrook Academy of Art. Eliel Saarinen not only designed the Cranbrook complex but, under his stewardship, it became one of the most influential design schools in the nation.

 

Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen was born in Rantisalmi, Finland, in 1873. A portion of Eliel Saarinen's childhood was spent in the Russian region of Ingermanland near St. Petersburg, a result of his father being in the clergy. The proximity of St. Petersburg provided the young Eliel Saarinen with an urban experience unequaled in more provincial Finland and also gave him access to The Hermitage. Eliel Saarinen initially intended to be a painter, a desire that he acknowledged was stimulated by visits to the museum. After graduating from high school in 1893, Eliel Saarinen enrolled in the Department of Architecture at the Technical Institute in Helsinki, simultaneously taking drawing courses at Helsinki University. While at the Institute, Eliel Saarinen formed friendships with Herman Gesellius and Armas Lindgren; the three formed an architectural partnership in 1896, a year before Eliel Saarinen graduated. The Gesellius, Lindgren and Eliel Saarinen office lasted until 1905, when Lindgren left the partnership; Gesellius and Eliel Saarinen continued to practice together for two additional years. Eliel Saarinen married Gesellius's sister Louise (Loja) in 1904 (his second marriage); they had two children, a daughter Eva-Lisa (Pipsan) and a son Eero.

 

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