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e.g. Willyou dinewith me tomorrow, Lewis?

"Won'tyou sitdown?" said the doctor.

You'll forgiveme, won'tyou?

"Would you doit?" she asked eagerly.

2) in clauses of condition introduced by if (see also "Verbs". § 149) where they also express willingness, consent,

e.g. "It's about forty minutes' walk from here and if you'll come

now I'll go with you," she said. No, we are not going to quarrel at all if you'll only letme

talk. If you would standby me I should have another try.

In both cases will (would) is followed by the simple infinitive and the action always refers to the future.

Both interrogative and conditional sentences are often actually polite requests in this case. There is hardly any difference be- tween the use of will and would here; the role of would is to make the request still more polite.

§ 116. The use of will and would is not parallel in the follow- ing cases:

1) Will may be used to express suppositionwith reference to the present or to the future in combination with the simple infini- tive, or to the past in combination with the Perfect infinitive. This meaning is found with the second and third persons.

e.g. This will bethe school, I believe. (Это, по-видимому, и есть


You will have heardthe news, I'm sure. (Я полагаю, что вы уже слышали новость.)

It should be noted that the use of will inthis meaning is not common.

2) Would may be used rather sarcastically to express that something was to be expected.It is found in affirmative and neg- ative sentences.

e.g. "Auntie Meg has been very brave." "Yes. She would bebrave."

(That was to be expected of her under the circumstances.) "I don't understand him and I don't approve of his decision." "No,you wouldn't."(/ did not expect you would.)

This meaning can be rendered in Russian as Этого и следовало ожидать.

3) Note the use of will in the following sentences:

e.g. Boys will beboys. (Мальчишки остаются мальчишками.) Accidents will happen.(Без несчастных случаев дело не об- ходится.)

4) Note the set phrases with will and would:

a) Will not have (won't have) followed by an object and an in- finitive without to means 'I'll see to it that it does not happen.'

e-g. "I will not(won't) haveyou speakto me like that, her voice came sharply. (Я не допущу, чтобы...)


b)Both would rather ('d rather) and would sooner ('d sooner) followed by an infinitive without to mean 'to prefer'.

e.g. "I'd rather doit myself," said Luke.

He'd sooner diethan let me think he was a failure.

e) Would... mind in interrogative and negative sentences means 'to object'.

e.g. Wouldyou mindmy staying here for a while? I wouldn't mindyour telling them about Hardy.

Would...mind in interrogative sentences may also express a polite request.

e.g. Wouldyou mindgetting me a cup of tea?

§ 117.Would also occurs in certain subordinate clauses where it is structurally dependent (for a detailed treatment of this case see "Verbs", § 132).

e.g. I wish the rain would stopfor a moment. I wish they wouldn't insiston it.


§ 118.The modal verb needmay be used either as a defective or as a regular verb.

1) Need as a defective verb has only one form which is the present tense. In reported speech it remains unchanged. It is fol- lowed by the infinitive without to.

Need expresses necessity.When reference is made to the present or future it is followed by the simple infinitive. It is used in negative and interrogative sentences.l

In interrogative sentences need usually implies that there is no necessity of performing the action.

e.g. You needn't beafraid of me. (Вам не нужно/незачем бояться



In negative sentences it is not always the verb need that is in the negative form; the negation may be found elsewhere in the sentence.

e.g. I don't think we need giveher any more of our attention. I needhardly saythat I agree with you.

Perfect infinitive +need = action which has been performed though it was unnecessary. It im- plies a waste of time or effort.

e.g- You needn't have come.The deal is off. (Вам незачем (не к

чему) было приходить. Вы зря пришли.) It was obvious. You needn't have protested. We needn't have toldhim a lie even if we didn't want to tell

him the truth. (Нам незачем (не к чему) было лгать

ему... Мы зря солгали ему...)


2) As a regular verb need can have all the necessary forms, in- cluding the verbals. It also expresses necessity. Itis followed by the infinitive with to and is mainly used in interrogative and nega- tive sentences (like the defective need).

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