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PART II Minerals. Nutritinal Suplements. Forms of Vitamin Suplements.

Grammar: Revision of Simple Tenses Active and Passive Voice

Exercise 1. Learn the new words:

along with – поряд з range of – ряд, сфера, зона, межі significant – значний, істотний responsible - відповідальний metabolize [mɪˈtæbəˌlaɪz] – метаболізувати, засвоювати deliver – доставляти transmit - передавати strengthen [ˈstrɛŋθən] - зміцнювати supply [səplaɪ] - постачати source [sɔːs] - джерело supplement - доповнення; додаток available – доступний, що є в наявності lozenge[ˈlozindʒ] – таблетка для смоктання, льодяник sublingual[sʌbˈlɪŋgwəl] - під’язичний mirror - відображати, віддзеркалювати counterpart [ˈkaʊntəˌpɑːt] - подоба; дублікат specify [ˈspɛsɪˌfaɪ] - точно визначати (встановлювати) otherwise [ˈʌðəˌwaɪz] - інакше substitution [ˌsʌbstɪˈtjuːʃən] - заміна

Exercise 2. Write in words ( all the words are from the text below) and translate into your language:

[ˈprəʊtiːn], [ˈsʌlfə], [ˈfɒsfərəs], [pəˈtæsɪəm], [mægˈniːzɪəm], [tɪn], [ˈkrəʊmɪəm], [ˈkopə], [ˈɛnzaɪm], [ˈkɛmɪkəl], [ˈkælsɪəm], [ˈklɔːriːn], [ˈsəʊdɪəm], [zɪŋk], [ˈaiən], [ˈaɪəˌdiːn]

Exercise 3. Translate the word combinations into your language:

Broad range of functions, play a significant role, deliver oxygen, muscle contraction, transmit messages, strengthen each other, work properly, absorb phosphorus and calcium, outside sources, synthetic vitamins, nutritional supplements, intestinal bacteria, isolated vitamins,counterpart, take after meals, substitution for a healthy diet, otherwise, gel-capsule form, powder form, lozenge form.

Exercise 4.Change the sentences as in the model (using Passive Voice instead of Active Voice) :

Model: Enzymes need copper for metabolizing. – Copper is needed by enzymes for metabolizing.

1)Iron delivers oxygen to the body’s cells.

2)Vitamins and minerals strengthen each other.

3)The skin creates vitamin D when it is exposed to sunlight.

4)The body absorbs iron through the help of vitamin C.

5)Polish scientist Casimir Funk made up a combination word "vitamine" from vital and amine.

6)Medical men used lipid from fish oil to cure rickets during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

7)In 1881, Russian surgeon Nikolai Lunin studied the effects of scurvy.

8)Japanese scientist Umetaro Suzuki isolated the first vitamin complex in 1910.

Exercise 5. Read the text:

Along with vitamins human body needs a certain amount of minerals, which also have a broad range of functions. There are 20 minerals, which play significant roles in the body. They include copper, iodine, chromium, iron, tin, zinc, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus, calcium, sulfur and others. Zinc is responsible for helping metabolize proteins and keeping enzymes functioning. Copper is needed by enzymes for metabolizing. Iodine assists the thyroid gland in working properly. Calcium and phosphorus build bones and teeth. Iron delivers oxygen to the body’s cells. Potassium helps muscle contraction, maintains the fluid balance of cells, helps transmit messages through the body’s nerves, and keeps the kidneys and heart working correctly.

Vitamins and minerals not only help the body function, but they work to strengthen each other. The body absorbs iron through the help of vitamin C. Vitamin D helps the body absorb phosphorus and calcium. Vitamins D and K are the only vitamins the body can supply for itself. The skin creates vitamin D when it is exposed to sunlight. Vitamin K is produced by intestinal bacteria. Outside sources must supply the body with all other vitamins.

Ideally, all of us would get all of the nutrients we need for optimal health from fresh, healthful foods. In reality, however, this is often difficult, if not impossible. So, our diet does not always contain all essential vitamins and minerals, which is why we have to take synthetic vitamins and nutritional supplements for optimal health.

Vitamin supplements are usually available as isolated vitamins or in combination with other nutrients. They are available in tablet, capsule, gel-capsule, powder, sublingual, lozenge, and liquid forms. Some vitamins can also be administered by injection.

Synthetic vitamins are vitamins produced in laboratories from isolated chemicals that mirror their counterparts found in nature.

It is good to know that all vitamin supplements work best when taken in combination with foodand unless specified otherwise, fat-soluble vitamins should be taken before meals, and water-soluble ones should be taken after meals. What is most important, vitamins should not be used as substitutions for a healthy diet, but rather as supplementation.

 

Exercise 6. Answer the questions:

1) What does human body need along with vitamins?

2) Which minerals play a significant role in human beings?

3) What is zinc responsible for?

4) What is copper needed for?

5) What does iron do in the body?

6) How do vitamins and minerals strengthen and help each other?

7) Which vitamins can body supply for itself?

8) What is the ideal source of vitamins and minerals?

9) Why do people have to ingest synthetic vitamin supplements?

10) In which case do vitamin supplements work best?

Exercise 7. Find English equivalents of the following word combinations in the text:

Зовнішні джерела, у формі гелєвих капсул, доставляти кисень до клітин тіла, бути заміною здорової дієти, підсилювати один одного, приймати після їжі, у формі льодяників, відігравати значну роль, допомогати скороченню м’язів, мати широкий ряд функцій, поглинати фосфор та кальцій, працювати відповідним чином, у формі порошку, якщо не вказано інакше, відзеркалювати свої дублікати у природі, вживати синтетичні вітаміни, вироблятися кишковими бактеріями, ізольовані вітаміни, харчові добавки.

 

Exercise 8. Disagree with the following statements and give the correct information according to the model:

Model: The skin creates vitamin D when it is exposed to atmospheric oxygen. – The skin doesn’t create vitamin D when exposed to atmospheric oxygen. It creates vitamin D when it is exposed to sunlight.

1)Zinc is responsible for building bones and teeth.

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