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Vitamin water-soluble vitamin fat-soluble vitamin deficiency disease

VITAMINS

PART I

Grammar: Revision (Modal Verbs + Active/Passive Infinitives)

Exercise 1. Learn the new words:

compound [ˈkɒmpaʊnd] – суміш, сполука nutrient [ˈnjuːtrɪənt] - поживна речовина amount [əˈmaʊnt] - кількість sufficient[səˈfɪʃənt] - достатній exception [ɪkˈsɛpʃən] - виняток expose [ɪkˈspəʊz] - піддавати (чомусь - to) fatty acid – жирна кислота store- накопичувати ingest [ɪnˈdʒɛst] - ковтати diverse [daiˈvəːs] - різноманітний protein [ˈprəʊtiːn] - протеїн, білок carbohydrate[ˌkɑːbəʊˈhaɪdreɪt] - вуглевод assist - допомагати, сприяти heal- виліковувати, загоювати, заживати wound[wuːnd] рана; поранення performance [pəˈfɔːməns] - продуктивність outer[ˈaʊtə] - зовнішній deficiency [dɪˈfɪʃənsɪ] – нестача, дефіцит

Exercise 2. Form nouns with the help of the following suffixes, translate the nouns into your language:

-ance(-ence):perform, assist, differ, maintain, appear, occur, disturb, resist

-ion:except, protect, direct, ingest, suggest, correct, infect, solute, palpate

Exercise 3. Translate the word combinations into your language:

Organic compound, sufficient quantity, single exception, essential nutrients, fatty acid, amino acid, water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, be stored in the fatty tissue, ingest frequently, excreted through the urine, diverse biochemical functions, maintain body tissues, immune system’s performance, outer cell membrane, deficiency disease, vitamin poisoning.

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into your language paying attention to the use of modal verbs with active and passive infinitives:

1)Water-soluble vitamins must be used by the body at once.

2) Vitamin B12 is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver for many years.

3)You can develop health problems if you do not get enough vitamins.

4)Any woman who is pregnant should get enough folic acid.

5)High doses of certain vitamins can be poisonous.

6)Oil-soluble vitamins can be stored for long periods of time in the body's fatty tissue and the liver.

Exercise 5. Fill the gaps with the verbs from the box in the form of active or passive infinitive:

decrease produce include find administer take contain keep

1) Some vitamins can …by injection.

2) You may … a supplement that contains several needed nutrients in one tablet or capsule.

3) The potency of most vitamins may … by sunlight.

4) Vitamin supplements should … in a cool, dark place.

5) Excesses of isolated vitamins or minerals can … the same symptoms as deficiencies of vitamins or minerals.

6) Nutrients in supplement form should …for optimal health.

7) Natural supplements may …vitamins, minerals and other nutrients.

8) Supplements that are not labeled natural also may … artificial coloring, preservatives, sugars, and starch, as well as other additives.

Exercise 6. Read the text:

A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. In other words, an organic chemical compound is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be obtained from the diet. If a molecule can be synthesized in the body, it is not a vitamin. The single exception to this rule is vitamin D which can be synthesized in the skin, but only when exposed to sunlight and Niacin (B3) which itself can be synthesized in the liver in small amounts. The term vitamin does not also include other essential nutrients such as minerals, fatty acids, or amino acids (which are needed in larger amounts than vitamins).

Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble. There are 13 universally recognized vitamins: 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C). Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue, so they do not need to be ingested every day. Water soluble vitamins cannot be stored, with the exceptions of В12 and Folic Acid and must be ingested frequently for optimal health. They are easily excreted through the urine.

Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. For example, vitamin A helps to develop and maintain body tissues such as bone and skin; it also helps the body’s vision, nervous system functioning, reproduction, and growth. The B vitamins are responsible for increasing the production of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates as well as assisting with metabolism, building red blood cells, and maintaining the protection of the nervous system. Vitamin C helps form tissues, cells, bones and teeth; heals wounds; and improves the immune system’s performance. Vitamin E protects the outer cell membranes from harm, thus assisting the immune system in fighting off diseases.

A diet naturally high in vitamins and minerals can be the best defense against many diseases. You can develop health problems (deficiency disease) if you do not get enough of a particular vitamin. But it is also important to remember that high doses of certain vitamins can cause vitamin poisoning.

 

Exercise 7. Answer the questions:

1) What vitamin can be synthesized in the body?

2) How are vitamins classified?

3) Which vitamins are fat-soluble?

4) Which vitamins are water-soluble?

5) How many vitamins are universally recognized?

6) Why is it unnecessary to ingest fat-soluble vitamins daily?

7) How are water-soluble vitamins excreted out of the body?

8) What functions do vitamins have?

9) What are B vitamins responsible for?

10) What are the functions of vitamin A?

11) What happens when an individual doesn’t get enough of a particular vitamin?

12) What can high doses of certain vitamins cause?

Exercise 8. Find words or word combinations in the text denoting the following:

1) a condition, such as pellagra, beriberi, or scurvy, produced by a lack of vitamins or other essential substances;

2) a condition of high storage levels of vitamins, which can lead to toxic symptoms;

3) an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism, which cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities within the body;

4) a chemical compound whose molecules contain carbon;

5) a group of vitamins stored in the body's fatty tissue;

6) a group of vitamins which cannot be stored in the body.

 

Exercise 9. Translate the following word combinations into English:

Різноманітні біохімічні функції, викликати отруєння вітаминами, захищати зовнішню клітинну оболонку від пошкодження, органічна сполука, покращувати продуктивність імунної системи, розвивати авітаміноз, виділяти з сечею, допомогати підтримувати тканини тіла, у достатній кількості, єдиний виняток з цього правила, жирні кислоти та амінокислоти, потрібно споживати щоденно, необхідні поживні речовини, накопичуватися у жировій тканині, водорозчинні вітаміни, жиророзчинні вітаміни.

Exercise 10. Put questions to the underlined words:

1) Vitamin D can be synthesized in the body.

2) Water-soluble vitamins must be ingested frequently.

3) Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions.

4) High doses of certain vitamins can cause vitamin poisoning.

5) Vitamin C helps form tissues, cells, bones and teeth.

6) Vitamin E protects the outer cell membranes from harm.

Exercise 11. Translate the sentences into English paying attention to modal verbs with active and passive infinitives:

1) Печінка може накопичувати вітамін B12.

2) Вітамін В12 може накопичуватися у печінці.

3) Нам слід включати вітамінні добавки до нашого раціону.

4) Вітамінні добавки мають включатися до нашого раціону.

5) Не слід вживати жиророзчинні вітаміни щоденно.

6) Більшість вітамінів не можуть вироблятися організмом.

7) З яких джерел можна отримати вітаміни групи В?

8) За яких умов тіло може виробляти вітамін D?

 

Exercise 12. Define the following:

vitamin water-soluble vitamin fat-soluble vitamin deficiency disease

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