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Exercise 14. Make the sentences interrogative and negative. Translate them.

  1. Microorganisms can be divided into two groups.
  2. Aerobic microorganisms must have atmospheric free oxygen.
  3. Bacterial population may double every 9.8 minutes.
  4. The growing organism may increases in size.
  5. The process of division must depend on the environment.
  6. Pathogenic bacteria can cause the human death.

Exercise 15. Read and translate the sentences. Put the predicates into the Past:

1) Usually bacteria can be seen under the electron microscope.

2) The patient with a broken arm may walk.

3) Chlamidia may be involved in coronary heart disease.

4) Pneumococci can cause pneumonia.

5) Bacterial infections must be treated with antibiotics.

6) The patient can gain his body weight in some months.

7) In future the patient must avoid stress and physical exertion.

8) Bacteria may have very different morphologies and metabolisms.

Exercise 16. Choose proper variant of Modal verbs. Read and translate into native language:

In 1876, Robert Koch (1843–1910) established that microbes can/could cause disease. He found that the blood of cattle that were infected with anthrax always had large numbers of Bacillus anthracis. Koch found that he can/could transmit anthrax from one animal to another by taking a small sample of blood from the infected animal and injecting it into a healthy one, and this caused the healthy animal to become sick. He also found that he can/could grow the bacteria in a nutrient broth, then inject it into a healthy animal, and cause illness. Based on these experiments, he devised criteria for establishing a causal link between a microbe and a disease and these are now known as Koch's postulates. Although these postulates cannot/could not be applied in all cases, they do retain historical importance to the development of scientific thought and are still being used today.

Exercise 17. Put questions to the underlined words:

1) Frequently bacteria may secrete chemicals into their environment.

2) Disinfectants must be used to kill bacteria.

3) Robert Koch might work on cholera and tuberculosis.

4) First it was Antonie van Leeuwenhoek who could observe bacteria in 1676.

5) The bacterial secretion can act as enzymes.

6) Bacteria must grow and divide extremely rapidly.

7) The process of division may depend on the conditions of the environment.

8) Scientists might use different techniques to promote the growth of bacteria.

Exercise 18. Translate into English using Modal verbs and their equivalents:

1) Студенти повинні регулярно відвідувати анатомічний зал.

2) - Можна увійти? Вибачте, я запізнився.

3) Вчора черговий лікар зміг швидко зупинити кровотечу.

4) Хворий повинен був приймати ліки тричі на день.

5) Вибачте, я повинен йти, вже дуже пізно.

6) Патогенні мікроорганізми здатні спричиняти важкі захворювання.

7) Завтра хворий зможе (йому дозволять) вийти на прогулянку.

8) Вся інформація про хворого повинна бути записана в історію хвороби.


Exercise 19. Make up the situation using the following word-combinations:

  1. aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms
  2. bacterial species
  3. to increases in size
  4. pathogenic bacteria
  5. bacterial metabolism and genetics
  6. bacteriology


Exercise 20. Explain the terms:microorganisms; bacteria; bacteriology.

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