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Unit 15

MICROORGANISMS МІКРООГРАНІЗМИ

Text:MICROORGANISMS.

Grammar: Revision. Passive Voice and Simple Tenses.

Modal Verbs – Present, Past and Future.

 

PRE-TEXT ASSIGNMENTS:

Exercise 1. Learn the following new words:

  1. species
  2. curved
  3. cytoskeleton
  4. favourable
  5. environment
  6. attach
  7. acquire
  8. multiply
  9. occur
  10. tetanus
  11. chemicals
  12. persist
  13. mucous
  14. impair
  15. allow
  16. modify
['spiʃiz]] [kə:vd] [saitəu 'skelitən] ['feivərəbl] [in'vaiərənmənt] [ə'tætʃ] [ə 'kwaiə] [mʌltiplai] [ə 'kə:] ['tetənəs] [kemikəl] [pə 'sist] [mjukəs] [im'peə] [ə' lau] ['modifai]
  1. біолог. вид
  2. вигнутий
  3. цитоскелет
  4. сприятливий
  5. оточення
  6. прикріпляти
  7. набувати, здобувати
  8. збільшувати(ся)
  9. траплятися
  10. правець (стовбняк)
  11. хімічні речовини
  12. продовжувати
  13. слизовий
  14. пощкоджувати
  15. дозволяти
  16. видозмінювати

Exercise 2. Pay attention to the Singular and Plural forms of the Nouns:

 

species –['spi:ʃɪz] bacterium – [ bæk 'tɪərɪəm] coccus –['kɒkəs] bacillus – [ bə 'sɪləs] spirillum –[spaɪ ' rɪləm] vibrio – ['v(a)ibriəʋ] flora – ['fl ɔ: r ə] viscus ['viskəs] atrium–['eitiəm] species ['spi:ʃɪz] bacteria [ ] cocci [ ] bacilli [ ] spirilla [ ] vibrios['vaibriəus] florae (s) ['fl ɔ : ri:] viscera – ['visərə] atria ['eitriə]

Exercise 3. Give the Plural of the following Nouns:

 

Microflora, analysis, index, process, library, foot, bacterium, species, mouse, tooth, nucleus, ray, atrium, policeman streptococcus, viscus, child, datum, formula, mycobacterium, tooth, fungus, abscess, phenomenon, basis, leaf, fish, series, coccus, vibrio, vertebra, life, diagnosis, box, mouth, ganglion, speech, family.

 

 

Exercise 4. Make adjectives from the nouns and translate them into Ukrainian:

Atmosphere, mucosa, biology, infection, bacterium, patients, cell, parasite, pathogen, tuberculosis, membrane, environment, genetics, therapy, nutrients.

 

Exercise 5. Translate the word-combinations:

Unfavorable reactions; atmospheric free oxygen, life and growth of microorganisms, slightly curved in shape, the wide variety of shape, to acquire nutrients, the conditions of the environment; the process of bacterial division, to divide extremely rapidly, persisted pains; to increase in size up to a certain limit, to cause skin infections, the major cause of human death, to impair the health; to secrete chemicals, mucous membrane, a branch of microbiology: to occur often.

Exercise 6. Match the terms with their explanations:

  1. Microorganism
  2. Bacteria
  3. Coccus
  4. Bacillus
  5. Vibrio
  6. Spirillum
a)any bacterium having a curved or spirally twisted rodlike body; b)any spherical or nearly spherical bacterium, such as a staphylococcus; c)any organism, such as a bacterium, protozoan, or virus, of microscopic size; d)a very large group of microorganisms comprising one of the three domains of living organisms. They are prokaryotic, unicellular, and either free-living in soil or water or parasites of plants or animals; e)any rod-shaped bacterium, such as a clostridium bacterium; f)any curved or spiral rodlike Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Vibrio, including V. cholerae, which causes cholera: family Spirillaceae.

 

Exercise 7: Read and translate the text:

 

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