Etymology and spelling
Light, or reduced-fat, sour cream contains about 40 percent less butterfat than regular sour cream because it is made from a mixture of milk and cream rather than just cream. Fat-free "sour cream" contains no cream at all, and is made primarily from non-fat milk, modified cornstarch, thickeners and flavoring agents.
Sour cream is not fully fermented, and as such must be stored under refrigeration. As with other dairy products, it is usually sold with an expiration date stamped on the container, though whether this is a "sell by" a "best by" or a "use by" date varies with local regulation. Food authorities, such as the USDA, advise that sour cream with visible mold should be discarded, as it may be contaminated below the surface and could contain dangerous mycotoxins and aflatoxin.
Sour cream is used primarily in the cuisines of Europe and North America, often as a condiment. It is a traditional topping for baked potatoes, added cold along with chopped fresh chives. It is used as the base for some creamy salad dressings and can also be used in baking, added to the mix for cakes, cookies, American-style biscuits, doughnuts and scones. It can be eaten as a dessert, with fruits or berries and sugar topping. Also, it is sometimes used on top of waffles in addition to strawberry jam. In Central America, crema (a variation of sour cream) is a staple ingredient of a full breakfast.
Sour cream can also provide the base for various forms of dip used for dipping potato chips or crackers, such as onion dip.
In Tex-Mex cuisine, it is often used as a substitute for crema in nachos, tacos, burritos, taquitos or guacamole. It is one of the main ingredients in Chicken paprikash and Beef Stroganoff.
Yogurt or yoghurt or yoghourt is a dairy product (nut milks, such as almond milk, and coconut milk can also be used) produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures". Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and its characteristic tang.
Worldwide, cow's milk, the protein of which mainly comprises casein, is most commonly used to make yogurt, but milk from water buffalo, goats, ewes, mares, camels, and yaks is also used in various parts of the world.
Dairy yogurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria. In addition, other lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are also sometimes added during or after culturing yogurt. Some countries require yogurt to contain a certain amount of colony-forming units of microorganisms.
The milk is first heated to about 80 °C (176 °F) to kill any undesirable bacteria and to denature the milk proteins so that they set together rather than form curds. The milk is then cooled to about 45 °C (112 °F). The bacterial culture is added, and the temperature is maintained for 4 to 7 hours to allow fermentation.Contents [hide]
Etymology and spelling
The word is derived from Turkish: yoğurt, and is related to the obsolete verb yoğmak "to be curdled or coagulated; to thicken". The letter ğ was traditionally rendered as "gh" in transliterations of Turkish prior to 1928. In older Turkish, the letter denoted a voiced velar fricative /ɣ/, but this sound is elided between back vowels in modern Turkish, in which the word is pronounced [joˈuɾt].
In English, there are several variations of the spelling of the word, including yogurt, yoghurt, yoghourt, yogourt, yaghourt, yahourth, yoghurd, joghourt, and jogourt. In the United Kingdom and Australia, yogurt and yoghurt are both current, yoghurt being more common while yogurt is used by the Australian and British dairy councils, and yoghourt is an uncommon alternative. In the United States, yogurt is the usual spelling and yoghurt a minor variant. In New Zealand, yoghurt is preferred by the New Zealand Oxford Dictionary. In Canada, yogurt is most common among English speakers, but many brands use yogourt, since it is an acceptable spelling in both English and French, the official languages of Canada.
Whatever the spelling, the word is usually pronounced with a short o (/ˈjɒɡət/) in England, with a long o (/ˈjoʊɡərt/) in Scotland, North America, Australia, Ireland and South Africa, and with either a long or short o in New Zealand.
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